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All living organisms are made up of units called cells.

Both animal and plant cells have cell surface membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus

In addition, plant cells have a cellulose cell wall, a vacuole and may have chloroplasts

Cellulose cell wall

Only in plant cell

- provides structural support (pressure of cell contents leads to turgidity)

- protects against damage caused by osmotic intake of water

- cell wall is freely permeable to water and dissovled substances

Small temporary vacuole

- involved with digestion or with excretion

Cell surface membrane

- surronds the cytoplsm

- controls the entry and exit of dissovled substances

- separates the cell's contents from its surrondings


- contains water

- contains dissovled substances such as sugar and salts.


- contains the genetic material (DNA which makes up genes on the chromosomes)

- Carries the coded instructions for controlling the activities and characteristics of the cell.


Only in plant cell

- contain the pigment chlorophyll (for light absorption)

- contain the enzymes necessary for the production of glucose by photosynthesis.

Large permamnent vacuole

Only in plant cell

- contains water necessary to provide turgor pressure

- may store ions and molecules.


All of the contents related to Cells on this page are from Complete Biology for Cambridge IGCSE Third Edition P17

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